https://www.ai-cio.com/news/citi-fined-425m-over-benchmark-manipulation/ These institutions which have indulged in manipulation are most often given a slap on the wrist warnings or a petty fine. Whereas Bitcoin ETF is denied time and again citing the potential for manipulation. Any financial instrument that is traded can and will be manipulated, its just the nature of humans and greed. To call Bitcoin manipulated because of Tether is without logic, when historically every major financial institution has a long history of manipulating markets for their own benefit and every currency has been manipulated by the establishments that have a stake in it. Eventually a global currency like Bitcoin does not need an ETF at all, however the excuses regulators and the banks that support them come up with are flimsy. They need to be called out for their double standards.
About a month ago, Gain Capitals Forex.com made some upgrades. They also drastically changed their swap rates. It appears like they are keeping much of the lending rate differences for themselves rather than passing the positive rates to their customers. The customers are much more likely to pay swaps every day if you keep trades open through the 5:00 pm time. It appears like they don’t want swing traders or carry traders. I am looking for a better broker for longer term trades that also take advantage of positive swap rates. Any suggestions? I live in the U.S.
Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)
Hello, dummies It's your old pal, Fuzzy. As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great. What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. Idomybit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post. That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way. We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps. Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy. TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle. Ready? Let's get started. 1.The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows: Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself. Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part. You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus. That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it. Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets? 2. A Hedging Taxonomy The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now. (i) Swaps A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one. Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered. The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game. I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging. There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested. Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure). (ii) Forwards A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me. Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways. People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances. These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them. (iii) Collars No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray! To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts. (3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years. First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA. Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire. Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking? Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama. Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details. I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here. Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post. *EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market
Author: Christian Hsieh, CEO of Tokenomy This paper examines some explanations for the continual global market demand for the U.S. dollar, the rise of stablecoins, and the utility and opportunities that crypto dollars can offer to both the cryptocurrency and traditional markets. The U.S. dollar, dominant in world trade since the establishment of the 1944 Bretton Woods System, is unequivocally the world’s most demanded reserve currency. Today, more than 61% of foreign bank reserves and nearly 40% of the entire world’s debt is denominated in U.S. dollars1. However, there is a massive supply and demand imbalance in the U.S. dollar market. On the supply side, central banks throughout the world have implemented more than a decade-long accommodative monetary policy since the 2008 global financial crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the need for central banks to provide necessary liquidity and keep staggering economies moving. While the Federal Reserve leads the effort of “money printing” and stimulus programs, the current money supply still cannot meet the constant high demand for the U.S. dollar2. Let us review some of the reasons for this constant dollar demand from a few economic fundamentals.
Demand for U.S. Dollars
Firstly, most of the world’s trade is denominated in U.S. dollars. Chief Economist of the IMF, Gita Gopinath, has compiled data reflecting that the U.S. dollar’s share of invoicing was 4.7 times larger than America’s share of the value of imports, and 3.1 times its share of world exports3. The U.S. dollar is the dominant “invoicing currency” in most developing countries4. https://preview.redd.it/d4xalwdyz8p51.png?width=535&format=png&auto=webp&s=9f0556c6aa6b29016c9b135f3279e8337dfee2a6 https://preview.redd.it/wucg40kzz8p51.png?width=653&format=png&auto=webp&s=71257fec29b43e0fc0df1bf04363717e3b52478f This U.S. dollar preference also directly impacts the world’s debt. According to the Bank of International Settlements, there is over $67 trillion in U.S. dollar denominated debt globally, and borrowing outside of the U.S. accounted for $12.5 trillion in Q1 20205. There is an immense demand for U.S. dollars every year just to service these dollar debts. The annual U.S. dollar buying demand is easily over $1 trillion assuming the borrowing cost is at 1.5% (1 year LIBOR + 1%) per year, a conservative estimate. https://preview.redd.it/6956j6f109p51.png?width=487&format=png&auto=webp&s=ccea257a4e9524c11df25737cac961308b542b69 Secondly, since the U.S. has a much stronger economy compared to its global peers, a higher return on investments draws U.S. dollar demand from everywhere in the world, to invest in companies both in the public and private markets. The U.S. hosts the largest stock markets in the world with more than $33 trillion in public market capitalization (combined both NYSE and NASDAQ)6. For the private market, North America’s total share is well over 60% of the $6.5 trillion global assets under management across private equity, real assets, and private debt investments7. The demand for higher quality investments extends to the fixed income market as well. As countries like Japan and Switzerland currently have negative-yielding interest rates8, fixed income investors’ quest for yield in the developed economies leads them back to the U.S. debt market. As of July 2020, there are $15 trillion worth of negative-yielding debt securities globally (see chart). In comparison, the positive, low-yielding U.S. debt remains a sound fixed income strategy for conservative investors in uncertain market conditions. Source: Bloomberg Last, but not least, there are many developing economies experiencing failing monetary policies, where hyperinflation has become a real national disaster. A classic example is Venezuela, where the currency Bolivar became practically worthless as the inflation rate skyrocketed to 10,000,000% in 20199. The recent Beirut port explosion in Lebanon caused a sudden economic meltdown and compounded its already troubled financial market, where inflation has soared to over 112% year on year10. For citizens living in unstable regions such as these, the only reliable store of value is the U.S. dollar. According to the Chainalysis 2020 Geography of Cryptocurrency Report, Venezuela has become one of the most active cryptocurrency trading countries11. The demand for cryptocurrency surges as a flight to safety mentality drives Venezuelans to acquire U.S. dollars to preserve savings that they might otherwise lose. The growth for cryptocurrency activities in those regions is fueled by these desperate citizens using cryptocurrencies as rails to access the U.S. dollar, on top of acquiring actual Bitcoin or other underlying crypto assets.
The Rise of Crypto Dollars
Due to the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, USD stablecoin, a crypto-powered blockchain token that pegs its value to the U.S. dollar, was introduced to provide stable dollar exposure in the crypto trading sphere. Tether is the first of its kind. Issued in 2014 on the bitcoin blockchain (Omni layer protocol), under the token symbol USDT, it attempts to provide crypto traders with a stable settlement currency while they trade in and out of various crypto assets. The reason behind the stablecoin creation was to address the inefficient and burdensome aspects of having to move fiat U.S. dollars between the legacy banking system and crypto exchanges. Because one USDT is theoretically backed by one U.S. dollar, traders can use USDT to trade and settle to fiat dollars. It was not until 2017 that the majority of traders seemed to realize Tether’s intended utility and started using it widely. As of April 2019, USDT trading volume started exceeding the trading volume of bitcoina12, and it now dominates the crypto trading sphere with over $50 billion average daily trading volume13. https://preview.redd.it/3vq7v1jg09p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f11b5f5245a8c335ccc60432873e9bad2eb1e1 An interesting aspect of USDT is that although the claimed 1:1 backing with U.S. dollar collateral is in question, and the Tether company is in reality running fractional reserves through a loose offshore corporate structure, Tether’s trading volume and adoption continues to grow rapidly14. Perhaps in comparison to fiat U.S. dollars, which is not really backed by anything, Tether still has cash equivalents in reserves and crypto traders favor its liquidity and convenience over its lack of legitimacy. For those who are concerned about Tether’s solvency, they can now purchase credit default swaps for downside protection15. On the other hand, USDC, the more compliant contender, takes a distant second spot with total coin circulation of $1.8 billion, versus USDT at $14.5 billion (at the time of publication). It is still too early to tell who is the ultimate leader in the stablecoin arena, as more and more stablecoins are launching to offer various functions and supporting mechanisms. There are three main categories of stablecoin: fiat-backed, crypto-collateralized, and non-collateralized algorithm based stablecoins. Most of these are still at an experimental phase, and readers can learn more about them here. With the continuous innovation of stablecoin development, the utility stablecoins provide in the overall crypto market will become more apparent.
In addition to trade settlement, stablecoins can be applied in many other areas. Cross-border payments and remittances is an inefficient market that desperately needs innovation. In 2020, the average cost of sending money across the world is around 7%16, and it takes days to settle. The World Bank aims to reduce remittance fees to 3% by 2030. With the implementation of blockchain technology, this cost could be further reduced close to zero. J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., has created an Interbank Information Network (IIN) with 416 global Institutions to transform the speed of payment flows through its own JPM Coin, another type of crypto dollar17. Although people argue that JPM Coin is not considered a cryptocurrency as it cannot trade openly on a public blockchain, it is by far the largest scale experiment with all the institutional participants trading within the “permissioned” blockchain. It might be more accurate to refer to it as the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) instead of “blockchain” in this context. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that as J.P. Morgan currently moves $6 trillion U.S. dollars per day18, the scale of this experiment would create a considerable impact in the international payment and remittance market if it were successful. Potentially the day will come when regulated crypto exchanges become participants of IIN, and the link between public and private crypto assets can be instantly connected, unlocking greater possibilities in blockchain applications. Many central banks are also in talks about developing their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Although this idea was not new, the discussion was brought to the forefront due to Facebook’s aggressive Libra project announcement in June 2019 and the public attention that followed. As of July 2020, at least 36 central banks have published some sort of CBDC framework. While each nation has a slightly different motivation behind its currency digitization initiative, ranging from payment safety, transaction efficiency, easy monetary implementation, or financial inclusion, these central banks are committed to deploying a new digital payment infrastructure. When it comes to the technical architectures, research from BIS indicates that most of the current proofs-of-concept tend to be based upon distributed ledger technology (permissioned blockchain)19. https://preview.redd.it/lgb1f2rw19p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=040bb0deed0499df6bf08a072fd7c4a442a826a0 These institutional experiments are laying an essential foundation for an improved global payment infrastructure, where instant and frictionless cross-border settlements can take place with minimal costs. Of course, the interoperability of private DLT tokens and public blockchain stablecoins has yet to be explored, but the innovation with both public and private blockchain efforts could eventually merge. This was highlighted recently by the Governor of the Bank of England who stated that “stablecoins and CBDC could sit alongside each other20”. One thing for certain is that crypto dollars (or other fiat-linked digital currencies) are going to play a significant role in our future economy.
There is never a dull moment in the crypto sector. The industry narratives constantly shift as innovation continues to evolve. Twelve years since its inception, Bitcoin has evolved from an abstract subject to a familiar concept. Its role as a secured, scarce, decentralized digital store of value has continued to gain acceptance, and it is well on its way to becoming an investable asset class as a portfolio hedge against asset price inflation and fiat currency depreciation.Stablecoins have proven to be useful as proxy dollars in the crypto world, similar to how dollars are essential in the traditional world. It is only a matter of time before stablecoins or private digital tokens dominate the cross-border payments and global remittances industry. There are no shortages of hypes and experiments that draw new participants into the crypto space, such as smart contracts, new blockchains, ICOs, tokenization of things, or the most recent trends on DeFi tokens. These projects highlight the possibilities for a much more robust digital future, but the market also needs time to test and adopt. A reliable digital payment infrastructure must be built first in order to allow these experiments to flourish. In this paper we examined the historical background and economic reasons for the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the world, and the probable conclusion is that the demand for U.S. dollars will likely continue, especially in the middle of a global pandemic, accompanied by a worldwide economic slowdown. The current monetary system is far from perfect, but there are no better alternatives for replacement at least in the near term. Incremental improvements are being made in both the public and private sectors, and stablecoins have a definite role to play in both the traditional and the new crypto world. Thank you. Reference:  How the US dollar became the world’s reserve currency, Investopedia  The dollar is in high demand, prone to dangerous appreciation, The Economist  Dollar dominance in trade and finance, Gita Gopinath  Global trades dependence on dollars, The Economist & IMF working papers  Total credit to non-bank borrowers by currency of denomination, BIS  Biggest stock exchanges in the world, Business Insider  McKinsey Global Private Market Review 2020, McKinsey & Company  Central banks current interest rates, Global Rates  Venezuela hyperinflation hits 10 million percent, CNBC  Lebanon inflation crisis, Reuters  Venezuela cryptocurrency market, Chainalysis  The most used cryptocurrency isn’t Bitcoin, Bloomberg  Trading volume of all crypto assets, coinmarketcap.com  Tether US dollar peg is no longer credible, Forbes  New crypto derivatives let you bet on (or against) Tether’s solvency, Coindesk  Remittance Price Worldwide, The World Bank  Interbank Information Network, J.P. Morgan  Jamie Dimon interview, CBS News  Rise of the central bank digital currency, BIS  Speech by Andrew Bailey, 3 September 2020, Bank of England
Since mid-April, financial tensions have been easing in the emerging countries. Bolstered by the very gradual return of portfolio investment, exchange rates have stabilised.
Since mid-May, cumulative net inflows of non-resident portfolio investment into bond and equity markets amounted to USD 22 bn (according to data from the Institute for International Finance (IIF) for a selection of 20 emerging countries), compared to cumulative net outflows of USD 100 bn from the end of February to mid-May
As a result, the emerging market currencies have regained some of the ground lost in the first 3 to 4 months of the year (+1.6% on average since mid-March, vs. -6% in Q1). Equity prices, in contrast, have erased most of their losses (+17% on average since the end of March, vs. -20% in Q1). Is this normalisation process, which is very advanced in the equity markets, truly justified?
cyclical indicators suggest a recovery in H2 2020. Yet the size and diffusion of the recovery remains highly uncertain. For this reason, the rebound in local equity markets seems a bit excessive and even premature. In Brazil, India and Mexico, the pandemic is not under control, and some governments have even imposed new, selective lockdowns.
Despite the surge in fiscal deficits, for the moment we have not observed any difficulties in refinancing public debt. Bond yields have been held down through conventional monetary easing (via policy rate cuts, which have been widespread throughout the emerging countries) and/or through quantitative easing (by expanding the ways in which central banks can refinance banks and indirectly companies, or through the monetary financing of fiscal deficits). Yet if the pandemic persists, this financial support will not prevent an upsurge in delinquencies and non-performing loans.
Lastly, higher risk premiums on sovereign debt in the local currency increase the attractiveness of carry trades and the inflow of volatile capital at a time when the emerging countries need financial stability even more than usual. For of a selection of 17 emerging countries, the median yield spread between the sovereign bond and a bond with an equivalent maturity in the financing currency (USD, EUR or JPY) remained stable at about 450 basis points (bp) between end-December 2019 and end-June 2020. But this spread must be looked at in terms of foreign exchange volatility to evaluate the profitability of the carry trade. After taking into account the policy rate differential, and thus the possibility of short-term foreign exchange coverage of positions (via the futures market or currency swaps), the median yield spread has nearly tripled, from 80bp to 200bp. For investors ready to take the risk of rolling over very short-term forex hedges, the spread is very attractive.
UNIFICATION | $FUND | The Game Changer | The next big ONE.
https://unification.com/ Header: You can visit and check my profile how much those early birds that read my post gained in my previous calls. There are others who called it first but I re-posted it for project awareness because they are still in low mcap before. $xgm x5 $kai x4 $ring x2 $2key x3 Marketcap: 4.3 million NO ICO NO PRIVATE SALES IEO price: $0.06 https://support.probit.com/hc/en-us/articles/360031772931-Unification-UND-will-launch-IEO-with-ProBit-Exchange Current price: $0.045 A little bit history; Unification or $FUND started as $UND wherein they burned the 88% of their total supply (1billion) and undergo mainnet this past May 14th, swapped $UND to $FUND at 1:1 ratio and considered $UND as a testnet after swapping and, $FUND as their mainnet. https://medium.com/unificationfoundation/the-unification-new-genesis-event-88-of-und-supply-destroyed-37fa56484396?source=collection_home---4------7----------------------- Introduction: Unification is a hybrid public/private blockchain that connects interoperating private WRKchains to a public Mainchain. Any independent entity can deploy useful scaled solution, via WRKchains and exchange data in closed environments. WRKchains can support any DApp/smart contract and may have their own native coin (or not), all while maintaining speed and scalability. Technology: Beacon - Beacons are the best choice for singularly maintained centralized databases that require an element of trust added WrkChains - WRKChains are a Distributed Ledger Technology designed specifically for real-world enterprise and consumer adoption TokenForge - TokenForge is Unification’s WRKChain infrastructure that allows for a consortium marketplace based on tokenization My opinion: For me, this token is such a vast industry. Unification created a solution for enterprises wherein if blockchain will be used in enterprise data operations, it will clogged the network because of heavy loads. And here they are, crafted the WkrChains, it is the fucking perfect solution that world needs. If I compare Neyma to Sergey, they are almost the same, who built the perfect blockchain/token to maximize the usability and scalability of blockchain. Also, Neyma the CEO of $FUND has connections to GOOGLE and RIPPLE. Imagine, private companies, enterprises and Governments will start using WrkChains. As time passess by, $FUND will eventually grow higher and higher and higher. They already have a working WrkChain named as "FinChains", it is a decentralized price oracle developed by Yellow, it is estimated to consume more than 500k to 1million $FUND a year. Imagine, when the adoption phase begin, there are a lot of $FUNDS will be used in utility. I don't care what you say, but for me this project is belong to top 50cmc, for short 100m mc, x37 from here. Worst case is top 100cmc at 50m mc, x18 from here. Don't missed out on this one. I highly suggest it to add it on your portfolio. If you missed out on LINK, NEO, UBT ico days. Here's your chance. Tokenomics; Explorer: https://explorer.unification.io/ Circulating supply : 93,851,203 Total supply : 120,000,000 Staking: YES There are 49 million tokens currently at perma stake by the company to secure the network at 51% attack. This will be locked forever for the security of the network. This is equivalent to 1/3 of total supply. Also, 10m $FUND will be minted each year that will bring the total supply at maximum of 210 million by the year 2029. But it will be locked and will only be used to sell for enterprises for utility usage and to pay for network tax (block rewards) it means, the more WrkChains will be deployed, there will be "DEFLATION" because it will be used by enterprises etc. If those 10million minted $FUND each year is not sufficient for enterprises, they have to MARKET BUY the $FUND tokens. Good tokenomics tho. Main Goal: To deploy 100 Wrkchains this 2020 Partners: Travala.com INLAGS (Latin American Institute of Health) https://www.inlags.com/ BidiPass (https://bidipass.org/) Alpha Chain (https://alphachain.com/) Yellow (https://www.yellow.com/) Beach Head (https://www.beachhead.com/) Binance Info (https://info.binance.com/) Deployment Partners: Amazon Web Services Google Cloud Platform Microsoft Azure Exchanges: Probit (suggested exchange, NO KYC) BitForex (suggested exchange, but low liquidity) Binance Dex (Not a mainnet, needed to swap) Digifinex Bidesk (Not a mainnet, needed to swap) Useful links: 1st enterprise to adopt WrkChains https://explorer.unification.io/transactions/8F0B166542C8E95ABCFFE35D8587E665149F65457AF5A41742010CE18143DCA4 An enterprise purchase of $FUND yesterday worth $21,000 for utility usage. https://explorer.unification.io/transactions/F7A79321387AF875570E6F97BC7E909D092C9870B19E94AFCBD84ED5D7EDC268 Big Boss Capital as a Unification Validator https://endofthechain.com/big-boss-capital-is-live/amp/?__twitter_impression=true Generation Crypto AMA Recap http://gcrypto.media/unification-ama-recap/ WrkChains detailed explanation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hJmV5vdG2o&feature=emb_title The Gem Hunters rated $FUND as Emerald Grade 3 https://www.thegemhunters.net/reviews A superb review of $FUND by Blockfyre, Rated $FUND a score of B7. https://blockfyre.com/unification-fund/ tehMoonwalkeR added $FUND to his list. https://twitter.com/tehMoonwalkestatus/1265281813603250179?s=19 An interesting thread by other user https://www.reddit.com/CryptoMoonShots/comments/gn0j9v/the_birth_of_fund_moonshots_part_2/?utm_medium=android_app&utm_source=share Telegram https://t.me/unificationfoundation Telegram Ann: https://t.me/UnificationOfficial Medium: https://medium.com/unificationfoundation Twitter https://twitter.com/UnificationUND?s=09 Coingecko https://www.coingecko.com/en/coins/unification Conclusion: You can apply the law of supply and demand in this token. Wherein scarcity will happen and will boost the token's price a lot and also consider the 49m permanent stake which is 1/3 of the total supply. Which means only 71 million are in the circulation. If this will be listed to another 5 more exchanges, the demand will increase which will give a massive boost to the price. Plus, add those incoming WrkChains deployment which will use about an estimation of 500k to 1million $FUND per year for utility usage. Their main goal this 2020 is to deploy 100 WrkChains. Imagine the scarcity. It will be above the rest. They worked hard 2 years for this perfect solution. Silently working and here they are, going to make a name in the industry. Try looking out for the flaws of this project. If you have any, kindly comment it here. Post Scriptum: Enjoy bagging this GEM as early as you can before it explode in corporations, enterprises and Governments and exchanges. This is my Ace card in whole crypto. FUD and bash is accepted. If you're saying 4m mcap is too high. No it's not. It's still in it's infancy phase. Also screencap this, next year it will be a happy memory that you read this post and you will thank me in the future.
Sup retards, back at it with the DD/macro. scroll to the rain man stuff after the crayons if you don't care about the why or how. TLDR: June 19 $250 SPY puts May 20 $4 USO puts SPY under 150 by January next year. So I was going about my business, trying to not $ROPE myself as my sweet tendies I made during the waterfall of March have evaporated, however, I heard that the fed was adding another $2.3T in monopoly money to the bankers pile specifically to help facilitate these loan programs being rolled out. In short, they are backing these dumb-ass, zero recourse, federally mandated, loans with printing press money. But cumguzzler OP, your title is about inflation and guage simp--try, why are you talking about the fed #ban. Well, when you print money it is an inflationary action in theory. Let me explain.
What is inflation? Inflation is the sustained increase in the price level in goods and services. Inflation is derived from a general price index, and in the US, from the consumer price index. Knowing that inflation is an outcome, not a set policy is very important. Inflation is a measurement after the fact, much like your technical astrology indicators. (**ps, use order flow in your TA you wizards**) HOWEVER, the actual act of buying bundles of these loans does not directly impact inflation. Now what is Gauge symmetry? Gauge symmetry is a function of math and theoretical physics that can be applied to finance models. What a gauge is, is a measurement. Gauge symmetry is when the underlying variable of something changes, however, we do not observe that variable change. A great example of this is if you and a friend are moving, and your friend is holding a box of tendies. The box is a cube, equal on all sides. If you turn away for a moment and she rotates the cube 90 degrees while you are not looking, and you look back - you would have no idea the cube was rotated. There was a very real change in the position of the cube in relation to space-time. Your friend acted on it. But you didn't measure it, in fact it would be impossible for you to determine if the box was changed at all if you weren't observing it. That movement of the box where you didn't observe it, is called gauge transformation and happens literally more then JPow fucks my mom in quantum physics. The object observably exactly the same even though it is not physically the same. The act of it existing as an observably the same box is gauge symmetry - it is by observation symmetrical. Why this is important, is that fiat money doesn't have any absolute meaning. The value of $1 is arbitrary. furthermore, Inflation is a Guage symmetry. Inflation has no real impact on the real value of the underlying goods and services, but rather serves as a metric to measure the shift of value across a timeline. When JPow starts pluggin' your mom along with all these balance sheets, there is a gauge symmetry event happening. The money he is printing is entering the system (gauge transformation), this isn't an issue if all pricing against the USD get shifted equally, however, the market is not accounting for this money because we don't have real-time data on what is being applied where, we only get a slow drip in terms of weekly and monthly reports. WE HAVE OUR EYES CLOSED. This is a gauge symmetry event. When this happens in real terms, the market becomes dislocated from its real value price. Well how do we know there is a dislocation? "YoU JuSt SaId tHe UnDeRlYiNg VaLuE iZ AbStRaCkKt HuRr QE aNd MaRkEtS Iz ComPlEx ReAd A TeXtBuK AbOuT FrAcTiOnAl ReSErVe BanKiNg YoU NeRd." - **anyone rationalizing the bull run** We can look at Forex you fish. USD lives in a bubble. The Yen is in a bubble, the RMB is in a bubble, and we exchange with each other. the Jap central bank has little effect on the CPI index (cost of goods and services) of the US. If the Yen prints a gazillion dollars, the USD is not effected EXCEPT in its exchange rate. YEN:USD would see a sizeable differential the more Yen is printed and vise-versa. So NOW instead of JPow getting away with plowing your girlfriend, we can catch the bitch. Instead of looking at the gauge transformation at face value and then giving up because it is symmetrical output, we can look and see if this gauge symmetry carries over to the foreign exchange market. Well guess what happens when you look at the value of the USD against foreign currencies. Consistent uncertainty during the fed operations. Meaning the market of banks that partake in FX swaps don't know where to spot the USD. Generally a very very bad thing. Value of the USD to Euro 2017-2020, notice the slow decline, then the chaos at the end Above is the value of the USD to Euro, notice the sloping decline. The dollar has been growing weaker since 2017. At the end you see our present issues, lets #ENHANCE USD to Euro, January 2020 to Present When you see those spikes, those are days in between Fed action. The value of the US goes up when the fed doesn't print because people aren't spending. Non-spending is a deflationary event and has a direct impact on the CPI. However, each drop when you line up the dates, was a date of Fed spending. Lets look outside of the Eurozone. This is the RMB to USD. Yes China manipulates, but look at the end of the graph China manipulated rates early in 2018 however you can see the steady incline upward towards the of 2018. More specifically, lets look at it since December. RMB value against USD, January to Now You Can see the Chinese RMB has been gaining steam since December, even with Chinese production falling off a cliff all through this pandemic.
What this rain man level autism means for the economy.
Looking across the board at Forex we can see the USD having a schizo panic attack jumping up and down like me at a mathematics lecture. But what does all this gauge BDSM and shit have to do with the markets? Well it shows 1 of 3 things are occuring.
The fed is printing money to offset deflationary pressures of the economy being fuk for the past month, and therefore all this printing is offset by the loss of liquidity throughout the system and we are all retared. (SECRET: THIS IS WHAT ALL THE INSTITUTIONS THINK IS HAPPENING AND WE WILL ALL BE FINE.)
The deflationary event is overplayed, and JPow just is nailing his coffin together. This would result in long term hyperinflation similiar to the Weimar republic. The only hedge against this is to load up on strong currency that do not manipulate and have enough distance from US markets that they can have some safety (ironically the Ruble is the safest currency. Low link to the USD and not influenced by China, and on discount rn)
The gauge transformation is actually not as severe as they are blurting out, the fed does not pass go, does not actually print 10 Trillion dollars, and this was all a marketing ploy to not get Trump involved and prop markets. In this case, the real deflationary event is real, the USD red rockets harder then my cock and we end up market-wise at a very high asset price in relation to real value. This one is most dangerous because it increases the real value of debt and has mass dislocation between real value and market cap. You took debt at a fixed interest rate and a fixed principal, this would cause the biggest GUH in history when all of a sudden you are $100 million in debt and your revenue was $50 million a year ago, but now is only $25 million. That $100 million in debt is still $100 million and now you have a credit crisis because past values of money were inflated. This spirals into a large scale solvency crisis of any company utilizing current growth methodology (levering up to your tits in debt)
In only 1 of these 3 scenarios do we see any sort of "good" outcome? That would be the offset of deflationary pressures. It is very important to understand that inflation is only a measurement, and itself does not denote value of real goods and services. Option 1 of a print fiesta that works (something similar to 1981-82) seems possible. A similar environment and reaction occured in the early 80s when the government brute-forced a bull run using these same offset theorems but in that situation, Volker at the fed had interest rates at 21.5% and had 20% to come down to stimulate the inflationary reaction. Long term this would just lever up more debt and expanded the real wealth gap over time because we kicked the can down the road another 15 years. If that happens again socioeconomically I don't see capitalism surviving (yeah Im on my high horse get over it). This is the option that many fiscal policymakers and talking heads abide by and the reason why the markets are green. However, it is really just kicking it down the road and expanding real wealth inequality. You think Bernie Sanders is bad, wait until homes cost $3million dollars in Kentucky and AOC Jr comes around. If we get option 2, we see hyperinflation and we turn into Zimbabwe, which is great, I've always wanted to see Africa. Long term we could push interest rate back to 1980 Volker levels and slowly revalue the US against real value commodities already pegged to the USD like oil. This would be a short term shock but because of international reliance on the USD system, we could slowly de-lever this inflation over 2-3 years and be back to normal capacity although the markets would blow their O-ring. Recession yes, but no long term depression. If we get option 3, the worst long term option in my opinion, basically any company with any revolver line drawn down when that hits is going to go under, private equity won't touch it with a 20ft stick because cashflows couldn't possibly handle the debt on the end of the lever, and we see mass long term unemployment. The only way out of the spiral of option three is inflationary pressure from the fed+government, but because we are already so far down the rabbit hole at the current moment there's no fucking way we could print another 10 trillion. USD treasuries couldn't handle the guh and we would essentially be functionally forced into a long term (7-10 year) depression because nothing anyone could do would delever the value of the dollar. This would result in the long term collapse of the United States as a world power and would render us like Russia in 1991. Thank you for coming to my ted talk.
Again within 24 hours of trying to work out a way to make this sustainable and workable for everyone I've noticed it's not worth the hassle to do so. It seems a lot of you expect everything for nothing. I'm afraid that is not going to work for me. Nothing I am doing is free for me, and if people do not want to pitch in the tiniest bit to help with that I can only conclude one of two things; 1 - The info is not worth $50 to you. In which case it is not worth my time writing it. 2 - People are ungrateful. In which case it is not worth my time writing it. If people were willing to meet me half way, I'd have went a lot further. People seem to want to stand where they are and shout over to me I'm a scammer for not bringing it all to their feet. That's a perspective. You can have it. I do not mind. But if this is your talk, I'll trade in silence. I'll also show you what happens with the "Scammy" info I was going to provide you for $50. In the week ahead I'll set up an account with a similar amount to the amount of money people seem to think it's egregious to ask for, and I'll run the same trades on this as will be in the trading plans shared in the proposed offer. I'll use recognised results tracking programs that will automatically verify and display the results. Build up phase: I'll start with currency trades. These are the lowest barrier to entry since I can trade micro lots and also have access to leverage. Currency trades should give me about 400 'pips' margin of error. Realistically, I should not need more than 40. I think SPX will be up 2 - 4% next week, this should give gains to on the Aussie against the Swiss (AUDCHF) - I'll go long AUDCHF. Margin up phase: After the currency trades I should have enough to trade SPX. I'll start to position short on SPX around 3080 and I'll take a first target of 2377. Given the right setups I'll add to my SPX short as prices are falling to bulk up the net take profit on the trade if it works. I'll trail my stops on the first trades to mke sure I'm not increasing my risk . Big up phase: By this time I should have enough margin to trade the Dow. Here I can make some real money. Around 21,000 I'll start to short the Dow and I'll be targeting 10,000. This trade should pay me somewhere in the region of $50,000 per traded lot. During the move I should be able to build up a position of at least 4 - 5 lots on the margin I have. Should be over $200,000 if it hits. Cash flow up phase: Once the drop has happened, I will begin to go long and do it in ways that will generate me daily income. I'll do this by transferring about $100K into options account and selling puts for 100 SPY. I'll also switch back to currency trades and I'll engage in what are known as "Carry trades", these will pay me every day I hold the trade based upon the "Swap". The best carry trades will depend upon what respective interest rates are at the time. Assuming things are similar (relatively) to how they currently are, I will be buying the Aussie, Kiwi and Turkish currencies and I'll be selling them against the dollar and Yen. This will be long AUDUSD, NZDUSD, AUDJPY, NZDJPY and short USDTRY. I'll allocate $50,000 to carry trades. I'll use the remaining money to hedge and offset risks/losses on my cash flow trades if that is needed, and if not I will use it to make similar trades but ones based upon a short time frame and geared towards risk:reward based profit rather than passive cash flow. I'll keep doing this until the Dow is back to around 17,000 - 18,000. Crash cash phase: For the next phase of the drop I will again switch to trading the Dow. This is where I can make most money. I might also allocate $100 - 200K to OTM puts, but since this can be a slower more steady crash it will make more sense to build a position in the CFD market on the Dow. Again my Dow trade should pay over $50,000 per lot. This time building up over 20 lots should be fairly easy. Cash flow decade phase: Once the market has crashed I will start to become a big options seller. i'll also engage in carry trades if interest rates are not all screwed up (Which is there are 'currency wars' they could be). Being able to be on the right side of a carry trade will determine if this is viable or not - and that has some variables that can not be known at this time. I'd love to be able to just short USDTRY, though. If it's viable. With options, I will be selling both put options and call options. I think once the crash has happened we will enter into a long term theta market last 10 - 15 years - this period is known as a 'Lost decade)'. I'll sell SPY puts for under the lows and I'll also sell SPY calls each time there is jumps in upside volatility. I'll be happy to sell SPY calls for 200 for literally years on end. By this time I should have more than $50. I'll update my swing plans either bi-weekly, weekly or monthly. Pending on how much free time I have. I'll edit this post to add in the results tracking material when I set it up. Update: Here's the tracking link. http://www.myfxbook.com/members/2020sBeasomething-for-nothing/6040046 I set the copy software to invert trades & the first trades went short AUDCHF rather than long. That puts me on quite a substantial losing start, but it should not matter. Might push the start of SPX trades back a week. Probably won't. Let me just show the value of what I've been trying to teach you.
Global Financial Markets: Habits of Good Traders and Bad Traders [Part 1]
The Internet has created opportunity of easy access to the Global Financial Markets. Everyone who desires to learn and earn can now trade in the Global Financial Markets, irrespective of their location around the world without discrimination. What used to be the secret investment opportunity for the rich and privileged few, has now become an open marketplace through digital platforms made accessible on mobile phones, portable tablets and laptops. Therefore, as Internet connectivity and broadband access continues to penetrate into every remote corners of the globe, the awareness of Global Financial Markets commonly referred to as FOREX TRADING, will continue to soar! According to Ian H. Giddy, Stern School of Business, New York University “The global financial markets include the market for foreign exchange, such as the Eurocurrency and related money markets, the international capital markets, notably the Eurobond and global equity markets, the commodity market and last but not least, the markets for forward contracts, options, swaps and other derivatives”. Simply put, the Global Financial Markets is a virtual platform for online trading of Currencies of countries at the International Foreign Exchange Rate, as it is done real time between Banks, Large Corporations, Investment Firms, Hedge Funds and Private Equity Portfolio managers. These are the big players, usually called the Market Makers. These Market Makers are high value and high volume traders that account for over 90% of the 5 trillion dollars worth of trading done everyday for 24 hours throughout the 5 working days of the week. The participation of Individual Traders called Retail Traders in the Global Financial Markets is only possible through a registered and verified account on the trading platform of licensedand regulated Brokers like in the Stock Exchange industry. While the sound of participating in an open market valued at over 5 trillion dollars per day, sounds attractive and inspiring; very few Individual Traders have successfully earned profits from the Global Financial Markets consistently. In many instances, the odds are usually against the Individual Traders due to the numerous cycles of events and uncertainties that influence Global Economy and Trade relationships between countries of the world which directly or indirectly affect the sentiments of buyers and sellers of the currency of countries against others. While many may assume that making profit in the Global Financial Markets is just as simple as clicking BUY or SELL buttons on the Broker’s trading platform, the few successful traders know that there are a lot more to learn and apply. Like everything in life, learning by doing is the best way to winning the trophy. Fairly enough, all Forex Brokers in the Global Financial Markets provide demo accounts with virtual money to help traders learn and practice before investing their real money. Unfortunately, due to the habit of indiscipline, many traders are usually impatient in learning and often allow greed to push them to rush into live trading without developing the necessary skills and habits that will guarantee consistent profit and successful trading career.
“Discipline is the ultimate secret of Distinction. What makes the difference between Good and Bad Traders is Self-Discipline!”
What is the difference between IB Forex CFDs and IB Cash Forex? Can IB representative give an example?
IB Cash Forex is a leveraged cash trade where you take delivery of the two currencies making up the pair. Your Forex-trading related balances are combined with your other balances arising out of your other trading activity, and you pay or receive interest on these consolidated balances based on the benchmark rate for each currency. By contrast IB Forex CFDs are a contract which provides exposure but does not deliver the underlying currencies, and you pay or receive interest on the notional value of the contract. The benchmark rate for the contract is the difference between the benchmark rates for the two underlying currencies. This is in principle similar to the TOM Next rolls used by other brokers, but offers greater stability as benchmark rates generally are less volatile than swap rates. https://ibkr.info/article/2707 As I understand IB Cash forex is cheaper because interest is charged on amount not notional value correct?
I am a professional Day Trader working for a Prop Fund, Hope I can help people out and answer some questions
Howdy all, I work professionally for a proprietary trading fund, and have worked for quite a few in my time, hope I can offer some insights on trading etc you guys might have. Bonus for you guys Here are the columns in my trading journal and various explanations where appropriate: Trade Number – Simply is this the first trade of the year? The 10th?, The 50th? I count a trade that you opened and closed just one trade number. For example if you buy EUUSD today and sell it 50 pips later in the day and close out the trade, then that is just one trade for recording purposes. I do not create a second trade number to describe the exit. Both the entry and exit are under the same trade number. Ticket Number – This is ticket number / order ID number that your broker gives you for the trade on your platform. Day of the Week – This would be simply the day of the week the trade was initiated Financial Instrument / Currency Pair – Whatever Financial Instrument or currency pair you are trading. If you are trading EUUSD, put EUUSD. If you are trading the EuroFX futures contract, then put in Euro FX. If you are trading the emini S&P, then put in Emini S&P 500. If you are trading a stock, put in the ticker symbol. Etc. Buy/Sell or Long/Short – Did you buy or sell to open the new trade? If you bought something to open the trade, then write in either BUY or LONG. If you sold(shorted) something to open a trade, then write in SOLD, or SHORT. This is a personal preference. Some people like to put in their journals as BUY/SELL. Other people like to write in Long/Short. My preference is for writing in long/short, since that is the more professional way to say it. I like to use the lingo where possible. Order Type – Market or Limit – When you entered the trade was it a market order or limit order? Some people can enter a trade using a combination of market and limit orders. If you enter a trade for $1 million half of which was market order and the other half was limit order, then you can write in $500,000 Market, $500,000 Limit as a bullet points. Position Size / Units / Contracts / Shares – How big was the total trade you entered? If you bought 1 standard lot of a currency pair, then write in $100,000 or 1 standard lot. If you bought 5 gold futures contracts, then write in 5 contracts. If you bought 1,000 shares of stock, then write in 1,000 shares. Etc. Entry Price – The entry price you received entering your opening position. If you entered at multiple prices, then you can either write in all the different fills you got, or specify the average price received. Entry Date – Date that you entered the position. For example January 23, 2012. Or you can write in 1/23/12 . Entry Time – Time that you opened the position. If it is multiple positions, then you can specify each time for each various fill, or you can specify the time range. For example if you got $100,000 worth of EUUSD filled at 3:00 AM EST, and another $100,000 filled at 3:05 and another $100,000 filled at 3:25, then you can write all those in, or you can specify a range of 3:00 – 3:30 AM EST. Entry Spread Cost (in pips) – This is optional if you want to keep track of your spread cost in pips. If you executed a market order, how many pips did you pay in spread. Entry Spread Cost (in dollars) – This is optional if you want to keep track of your spread cost in dollars. If you executed a market order, how many dollars did you pay in spread. Stop Loss Size – How big is your stop loss size? If you are trading a currency pair, then you write in the pips. If you are trading the S&P futures contract, then write in the number of points. If you are trading a stock, then write in how many cents or dollars your stop is away from your entry price. % Risk – If you were to get stopped out of the trade, how much % loss of your equity is that? This is where you input your risk per trade expressed in % terms if you use such a position sizing method. If you risked 0.50% of your account on the trade, then put in 0.50% Risk in dollars – If you were to get stopped out of the trade, how much loss in dollars is that. For example if you have a $100,000 account and you risked 1% on a trade, then write in $1,000 dollars Potential Reward: Risk Ratio – This is a column that I only sometimes fill in. You write in what the potential reward risk ratio of the trade is. If you are trading using a 100 pip stop and you expect that the market can reasonably move 300 pips, then you can write in 3:1. Of course this is an interesting column because you can look at it after the trade is finished and see how close you were or how far removed from reality your initial projections were. Potential Win Rate – This is another column that I only sometimes fill in. You write in what you believe the potential win rate of this trade is. If you were to place this trade 10 times in a row, how many times do you think you would win? I write it in as percentage terms. If you believe the trade has a 50% chance to win, then write in 50%. Type of Inefficiency – This is where you write in what type of inefficiency you are looking to capture. I use the word inefficiency here. I believe it is important to think of trading setups as inefficiencies. If you think in terms of inefficiencies, then you will think in terms of the market being mispriced, then you will think about the reasons why the market is mispriced and why such market expectations for example are out of alignment with reality. In this category I could write in different types of trades such as fading the stops, different types of news trades, expecting stops to get tripped, betting on sentiment intensifying, betting on sentiment reversing, etc. I do not write in all the reasons why I took the trade in this column. I do that in another column. This column is just to broadly define what type of inefficiency you are looking to capture. Chart Time Frame – I do not use this since all my order flow based trades have nothing to do with what chart time frame I look at. However, if you are a chartist or price action trader, then you may want to include what chart time frame you found whatever pattern you were looking at. Exit Price – When you exit your trade, you enter the price you received here. Exit Date – The date you exited your trade. Exit Time – The time you exited your trade. Trade Duration – In hours, minutes, days or weeks. If the trade lasts less than an hour, I will usually write in the duration in minutes. Anything in between 1 and 48 hours, I write in the hours amount. Anything past that and I write it as days or weeks as appropriate, etc. Pips the trade went against you before turning into a winner – If you have a trade that suffered a draw down, but did not stop you out and eventually was a winner, then you write it how many pips the trade went against you before it turned into a profitable trade. The reason you have this column is to compare it to your stop loss size and see any patterns that emerge. If you notice that a lot of your winning trades suffer a big draw down and get near your stop loss points but turn out to be a profitable trade, then you can further refine your entry strategy to get in a better price. Slippage on the Exit – If you get stopped out for a loss, then you write in how many pips you suffered as slippage, if any. For example if you are long EUUSD at 1.2500 and have your stop loss at 1.2400 and the market drops and you get filled at 1.2398, then you would write in -2 pips slippage. In other words you lost 2 pips as slippage. This is important for a few different reasons. Firstly, you want to see if the places you put your stop at suffer from slippage. If they do, perhaps you can get better stop loss placement, or use it as useful information to find new inefficiencies. Secondly, you want to see how much slippage your broker is giving you. If you are trading the same system with different brokers, then you can record the slippage from each one and see which has the lowest slippage so you can choose them. Profit/Loss -You write in the profit and/or loss in pips, cents, points, etc as appropriate. If you bought EUUSD at 1.2500 and sell it at 1.2550, you made 50 pips, so write in +50 pips. If you bought a stock at $50 and you sell it at $60, then write in +$10. If you buy the S&P futures at 1,250 and sell them at 1,275, then write in +25 points. If you buy the GBP/USD at 1.5000 and you sell it at 1.4900, then write in -100 pips. Etc. I color code the box background to green for profit and red for loss. Profit/Loss In Dollars – You write the profit and/or loss in dollars (or euros, or jpy, etc whatever currency your account is denominated in). If you are long $100,000 of EUUSD at 1.2500 and sell it at 1.2600, then write in +$1,000. If you are short $100,000 GBP/USD at 1.5900 and it rises to 1.6000 and you cover, then write in -$1,000. I color code the box background to green for profit and red for loss. Profit/Loss as % of your account – Write in the profit and/or loss as % of your account. If a trade made you 2% of your account, then write in +2%. If a trade lost 0.50%, then write in -0.50%. I color code the box background to green for profit and red for loss. Reward:Risk Ratio or R multiple: If the trade is a profit, then write in how many times your risk did it pay off. If you risked 0.50% and you made 1.00%, then write in +2R or 2:1 or 2.0. If you risked 0.50% and a trade only makes 0.10%, then write in +0.20R or 0.2:1 or 0.2. If a trade went for a loss that is equal to or less than what you risked, then I do not write in anything. If the loss is greater than the amount you risked, then I do write it in this column. For example lets say you risk 0.50% on a stock, but overnight the market gaps and you lose 1.50% on a trade, then I would write it in as a -3R. What Type of trading loss if the trade lost money? – This is where I describe in very general terms a trade if it lost money. For example, if I lost money on a trade and the reason was because I was buying in a market that was making fresh lows, but after I bought the market kept on going lower, then I would write in: “trying to pick a bottom.” If I tried shorting into a rising uptrend and I take a loss, then I describe it as “trying to pick a top.” If I am buying in an uptrend and buy on a retracement, but the market makes a deeper retracement or trend change, then I write in “tried to buy a ret.” And so on and so forth. In very general terms I describe it. The various ways I use are: • Trying to pick a bottom • Trying to pick a top • Shorting a bottom • Buying a top • Shorting a ret and failed • Wrongly predicted news • Bought a ret and failed • Fade a resistance level • Buy a support level • Tried to buy a breakout higher • Tried to short a breakout lower I find this category very interesting and important because when performing trade journal analysis, you can notice trends when you have winners or losing trades. For example if I notice a string of losing trades and I notice that all of them occur in the same market, and all of them have as a reason: “tried to pick a bottom”, then I know I was dumb for trying to pick a bottom five times in a row. I was fighting the macro order flow and it was dumb. Or if I notice a string of losers and see that I tried to buy a breakout and it failed five times in a row, but notice that the market continued to go higher after I was stopped out, then I realize that I was correct in the move, but I just applied the wrong entry strategy. I should have bought a retracement, instead of trying to buy a fresh breakout. That Day’s Weaknesses (If any) – This is where I write in if there were any weaknesses or distractions on the day I placed the trade. For example if you are dead tired and place a trade, then write in that you were very tired. Or if you place a trade when there were five people coming and out of your trading office or room in your house, then write that in. If you placed the trade when the fire alarm was going off then write that in. Or if you place a trade without having done your daily habits, then write that in. Etc. Whatever you believe was a possible weakness that threw you off your game. That Day’s Strengths (If any) – Here you can write in what strengths you had during the day you placed your trade. If you had complete peace and quiet, write that in. If you completed all your daily habits, then write that in. Etc. Whatever you believe was a possible strength during the day. How many Open Positions Total (including the one you just placed) – How many open trades do you have after placing this one? If you have zero open trades and you just placed one, then the total number of open positions would be one, so write in “1.” If you have on three open trades, and you are placing a new current one, then the total number of open positions would be four, so write in “4.” The reason you have this column in your trading journal is so that you can notice trends in winning and losing streaks. Do a lot of your losing streaks happen when you have on a lot of open positions at the same time? Do you have a winning streak when the number of open positions is kept low? Or can you handle a lot of open positions at the same time? Exit Spread Cost (in pips) – This is optional if you want to keep track of your spread cost in pips. If you executed a market order, how many pips did you pay in spread. Exit Spread Cost (in dollars) – This is optional if you want to keep track of your spread cost in dollars. If you executed a market order, how many dollars did you pay in spread. Total Spread Cost (in pips) – You write in the total spread cost of the entry and exit in pips. Total Spread Cost (in dollars) – You write in the total spread cost of the entry and exit in dollars. Commission Cost – Here you write in the total commission cost that you incurred for getting in and out of the trade. If you have a forex broker that is commission free and only gets compensated through the spread, then you do not need this column. Starting Balance – The starting account balance that you had prior to the placing of the trade Interest/swap – If you hold forex currency pairs past the rollover, then you either get interest or need to pay out interest depending on the rollover rates. Or if you bought a stock and got a dividend then write that in. Or if you shorted a stock and you had to pay a dividend, then write that in. Ending Balance – The ending balance of your account after the trade is closed after taking into account trade P&L, commission cost, and interest/swap. Reasons for taking the trade – Here is where you go into much more detail about why you placed the trade. Write out your thinking. Instead of writing a paragraph or two describing my thinking behind the trade, I condense the reasons down into bullet points. It can be anywhere from 1-10 bullet points. What I Learned – No matter if the trade is a win or loss, write down what you believed you learned. Again, instead of writing out a paragraph or two, I condense it down into bullet points. it can be anywhere from 1-10 bullet points. I do this during the day the trade closed as a profit or loss. What I learned after Long Term reflection, several days, weeks, or months – This is the very interesting column. This is important because after you have a winning or losing trade, you will not always know the true reasons why it happened. You have your immediate theories and reasons which you include in the previous column. However, there are times when after several days, weeks, or months, you find the true reason and proper market belief about why your trade succeeded or failed. It can take a few days or weeks or months to reach that “aha” moment. I am not saying that I am thinking about trades I placed ten months ago. I try to forget about them and focus on the present moment. However, there will be trades where you have these nagging questions about they failed or succeeded and you will only discover those reasons several days, weeks, or months later. When you discover the reasons, you write them in this column.
Cases Displaying the Recent Climate of Chinese Economy
This is just a plain list that records the notable cases about China's recent economic woes. China is rumoured to delay indefinitely its US-China phase one trade deal (fact sheet PDF) implementation that includes the increase of China's purchasing American products & services by at least $200 billion over the next two years, which is almost twice the size of what China purchased before the trade war began. Okay. And according to Tianyancha (天眼查), Chinese commercial database that compiles public records; more than 460,000 companies in China closed permanently in Q1 2020, with more than half of them having operated for under three years. [LINK] Of course, this is mainly caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, what's interesting to me is the following part: "more than half of them having operated for under three years." What happened three years ago? Once you figure out how big the trade war has played in China's recent economic woes (the article samples listed below may help), the real question is whose investment or money in China was getting destroyed especially for the last three years. Other than the article samples listed below, two other data elements that would need to be assessed are: 1) financial loss from the US' blocking Huawei mobile OS & 5G and 2) financial loss from BRI projects. With CCP, who has been working with Huawei as a team for a long time?    ........................................ ☞ Tale of How Shanghai clique and Prominent Globalists Got Together. ........................................ Sep 09, 2015 -- Fortune Reports: The real ticking time bomb in China’s economy[LINK] "[China's] Local governments have borrowed this money with the blessing of China’s central government. In fact, China’s much-lauded $570 billion stimulus package in 2008, which dwarfed the American response to its crisis relative to each country’s respective GDP was funded mostly by local government debt. That program helped power China’s economic growth since 2008, but the dividends are now drying up. As Chinese growth slows, the central government is worried about the local governments’ abilities to finance the debt. China could continue to kick the can down the road by bailing out its insolvent local governments. But this would run counter to President Xi Jinping’s efforts to curb the power of local officials and shift China’s growth model from investment led to consumption led. Last week, Beijing placed a $16 trillion yuan cap on Chinese government debt, up $600 million yuan from a cap it set last year. And this is after the government has been swapping debt with local governments, buying up real estate-financed local debt in place of government debt officially backed by the Chinese government." Aug 24, 2016 -- SCMP: Wanted posters for fugitive debtors and runaway bosses symptoms of China’s economic woes[LINK] "In the first seven months of this year, there were 38 instances of default by 18 bond issuers on the mainland, six of them SOEs. The defaults involved 24.8 billion yuan, more than double the total for the past two years combined. And while only a third of issuers in default this year were SOEs, they accounted for about two-thirds of the amount in default." Jul 12, 2017 -- The Nikkei Reports: China government auditor flags dodgy books at key state companies[LINK] "China's National Audit Office) delved into financial statements from 20 of the 101 state enterprises directly controlled by the central government, focusing on filings from the year 2015. The records are notoriously difficult for outsiders to access, as many of the companies are core unlisted units of major state-backed business groups. Improprieties were unearthed at 18 of the 20, including 200.1 billion yuan ($29.4 billion) in revenue inflation over the last several years and roughly 20.3 billion yuan in improperly booked profit. Culprits included China National Petroleum, one of the country's largest oil producers; China National Chemical, or ChemChina, which recently acquired Switzerland's Syngenta, the world's top maker of agrochemicals; and China Baowu Steel Group." ........................................ 2018 ........................................ Jul 16: China’s $42-Trillion Debt Bubble Looms Larger than Trade War [LINK] Oct 10: Financial woes build for HNA Group, forcing sale of subsidiaries and property [LINK] ........................................ 2019 ........................................ Jan 25: Sinopec Says It Lost $688 Million on ‘Misjudged’ Oil Prices [LINK] Jun 11: China’s debt disease might wreck its uncrashable housing market [LINK] Jul 18: More than 50 companies reportedly pull production out of China due to trade war [LINK] Jul 19: China Minsheng Investment says it cannot repay the principal and interest on US$500 million of bonds as its debt woe deteriorates [LINK] Sep 06: China Injects $126 Billion Into Its Slowing Economy [LINK] Oct 06: China's foreign exchange reserves fallen to mere $3.1 trillion USD [LINK] Nov 06: China Embraces Bankruptcy, U.S.-Style, to Cushion a Slowing Economy [LINK] Nov 25: China Faces Biggest State Firm Offshore Debt Failure in 20 Years [LINK] Nov 28: Chinese navy set to build fourth aircraft carrier, but plans for a more advanced ship are put on hold [LINK] Dec 02: Tech Firm Peking University Founder Welches on USD 284 Million SCP, Has USD 43 Billion Debt [LINK] Dec 02: Sinopec Group Slims Down Amid Push to Reinvigorate State Firms [LINK] Dec 13: Fact Sheet: Agreement Between The United States Of America And The People’s Republic Of China Text [PDF LINK] Dec 19: Money has been leaving China at a record rate. Beijing is battling to stem the tide [LINK]
Money was leaving the country at a record clip earlier this year through unauthorized channels, according to analysts. That's bad news for China, which needs to keep financial reserves high to maintain confidence in its markets.
........................................ 2020 ........................................ Feb 03: Coronavirus May Delay Hard-Fought U.S. Trade Wins in China [LINK] Feb 16: China's Evergrande to offer 25% discount for all properties on sale in Feb, March [LINK] Apr 02: Luckin Coffee stock tanks 80% after discovery that COO fabricated about $310 million in sales [LINK] Apr 08: Chinese e-learning king TAL Education admits inflated sales [LINK]
Chinese law prohibits Chinese companies from submitting to normal U.S. auditing standards, and four Senators have already introduced a bill requiring them to do so. Should Trump be reelected ... either Beijing will relent on auditing standards or Chinese firms may start to face U.S. delisting threat.
------------------------ ☞ Go Back to the Short Story. ----
Corona Virus/Covid-19 Pandemic: Right time to start your own Forex https://preview.redd.it/b1lmouy7fry41.png?width=563&format=png&auto=webp&s=e5f39e5c02b22487a0c65b65f176ccc4dadc4298 The world as we know is in doldrums primarily due to Corona Virus or COVID-19 which has been declared Pandemic by WHO. Almost all the securities markets are falling world over. This is probably the first time when even Gold is falling when stock market is falling. Crude has nosedived. Bitcoin which has been touted as “safe” investment same as Gold has depleted its value sharply contrary popular belief of it should have been gone up. There is no vaccine or medication available for Corona Virus. Moreover, it may take while before we see any substantial results. So, the only solution to the Corona Virus or COVID-19-update) is physical distancing by social distancing. Many people have gone into “Self Quarantine” and staying home.
Now is a good time to start forex brokerage business that you have been planning for so long. Here is the reasoning:
Stock Markets are in turmoil and Liquidity is fast eroding. The liquidity is the life blood of all the securities markets be it stocks, bonds, crude, gold, commodities or FOREX. Without liquidity, markets are worthless.
Many countries have either implemented restrictions like ban on short selling or are planning to put these restrictions. Short selling is not the only restrictions; there could be many more going forward if the conditions don’t improve. China kept its market almost closed and has been controlling it vigorously.
Many businesses are either shut or partially closed. Large Corporates are bailed out by stimulus packages. Small businesses are not going to get much benefit. What are they and their employees going to do to make living?
Since Forex Market is decentralized, Liquidity doesn’t depend on just one market or government. No one agency can control or stop trading in Forex.
It doesn’t cost much to start a Forex Brokerage Business. One can start a fully branded MT4/MT5 White Label Brokerage for less than USD 10,000 in first month charges and USD 3500 in monthly charges depending on what jurisdiction they operate in.
A co-branded Forex Brokerage also known as Forex Grey Label (MT4/MT5 Grey Label) would cost much less. You can start Forex Grey Label Business for as low as USD 2000 in first month charges and USD 1500 in monthly charges.
Forex Brokerage Business is largely run on technology only. A good Turnkey Forex Solution Provider or Forex Brokerage Technology provider would set you completely free.
What kind of operational set up is needed?
The core function of a Forex Broker is to help traders discover the best prices. Moreover, let them trade at best prices. Forex Brokers can be broadly divided into two categories on the basis of how trade orders are filled:
All you would need is to on-board and serve the traders/clients to start and run your won forex brokerage business.
Since you are just starting up your brokerage, you should target both seasoned and first time traders.
You may offer promotional packages to seasoned traders to open account and trade with you.
First Timers should be offered with DEMO Account to learn the ropes of Forex Trading. It takes a while to understand what is a currency pair, lot sizes, brokerage charges, and spread, swap charges, etc.
It's noticeable that more and more people in Forex are talking about the so-called Carry Trade or Cary Trade strategy - some know nothing about it, some advice them to use it... I've commented on the matter elsewhere but think it's worth a separate post, thus I do it: The Carry Trade (Strategy) was very profitable prior to the Financial crisis - I could buy a small new car only on swaps every year from a 20K deposit! Since around 2008/9 it's being squeezed out as the interest rates are gradually reduced globally - this is due to the global economy is cooling down. This alone hit the most all the Currency Hedge Funds... My records show that for example Oanda's combined for all the currencies positive swap dropped 2.5 times in the last three month!!! For you as a novice fx trader the main danger of this carry strategy is that countries with high interest rates will inevitably cut their interest rate rather sooner than later. Thus, for example, if you sell USD/TRY to capitalize on an attractive positive swap it may soon mean for you that you are left with a huge minus generated by your sell-positions and a tiny plus swap (in relation to the minus). And you can't close those sell-positions with profit for god know how long - and imagine some economic turmoil during that time with volatility shooting up 10 times, or a flash crash etc... Buy the way Turkey cut its interest rate in September and brokers cut their positive swaps 2 times in response (!)... Nowadays the Carry Trade has lost its shine for most pro traders as there are other strategies generating superior returns, but for a novice it is useful to learn about it. P.S. Those currency pairs with the better positive swap are the most volatile.
With the end of September almost here, it’s time to see what goodies MAME 0.214 delivers. This month, we’ve got support for five more Nintendo Game & Watch titles (Fire, Flagman, Helmet, Judge and Vermin), four Chinese computers from the 1980s, and three Motorola CPU evaluation kits. Cassette support has been added or fixed for a number of systems, the Dragon Speech Synthesis module has been emulated, and the Dragon Sound Extension module has been fixed. Acorn Archimedes video, sound and joystick support has been greatly improved. On the arcade side, remaining issues in Capcom CPS-3 video emulation have been resolved and CD images have been upgraded to CHD version 5, Sega versus cabinet billboard support has been added to relevant games, and long-standing issues with music tempo in Data East games have been worked around. Of course, you can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.
MAMETesters Bugs Fixed
00130: [Sound] (darkseal.cpp) darkseal: When using your weapon, the music speed increases. (AJR)
00389: [Sound] (cbuster.cpp) cbuster: The music tempo increases up when the flamethrower is used. (AJR)
02108: [Sound] (vaportra.cpp) vaportra, vaportrau, kuhga: Music tempo changes when firing. (AJR)
03635: [Gameplay] (igspoker.cpp) cpoker, cpokert: Games freezing during play. (Roberto Fresca)
05802: [DIP/Input] (pk8020.cpp) korvet, neiva, kontur: Keyboard does not work! (Robbbert)
06205: [Graphics] (snes.cpp) snes [pilotwinu,pilotwinj]: Upper part of the screen image repeated. (AmatCoder)
06486: [Side-by-side] (a2600.cpp) a2600: Initial stack pointer value for the M6507 (6502) is incorrect. (MoochMcGee)
06901: [Crash/Freeze] (snes.cpp) snes [jdredd and clones]: Judge Dredd (all regions) stops working after title screen. (AmatCoder)
Charlie Brown's 1, 2, 3's (1990 Queue re-release) (cleanly cracked), Chivalry (Revision 2) (cleanly cracked), Computer Preparation for the SAT (Version 1.1A) (cleanly cracked), Creature Chorus (Version 4.0) (cleanly cracked), Julius Erving and Larry Bird Go One on One (cleanly cracked), MicroExam Test Bank for Computer Mathematics: Structured BASIC with Math Applications (Version 1.01) (cleanly cracked), Millionaire (Version 2.1) (cleanly cracked), Professor Davensteev's Galaxy Search: Blue Level (cleanly cracked), Professor Davensteev's Galaxy Search: Red Level (cleanly cracked), Quiz Castle (cleanly cracked), The Sales Edge (cleanly cracked), Universe II (Version 1.0) (cleanly cracked) [4am, Firehawke]
Buck Rogers - Planet of Zoom (cleanly cracked) [LoGo, Firehawke]
Star Fleet 1: The War Begins (cleanly cracked) [Peter Ferrie, Firehawke]
apple2_flop_misc: Olin in Emerald [www.mocagh.org, Dan Chisarick, Firehawke]
Crossbow, Dogfight, Dragon's Keep, The Fidelity Chessmaster 2100, Hyper Head On, Infiltrator, Infiltrator Part II: The Next Day, International Hockey, Oo-Topos, PHM Pegasus, Racter, Roach Hotel, The Rocky Horror Show, The Sands of Mars, Snoggle, Succession, Super Mario Bros. Print World, Tawala's Last Redoubt, Tuesday Morning Quarterback [4am, Firehawke]
spectrum_cass: The Quill Adventure System (C series) (set 1, C05) [David Haywood]
vgmplay: Air Rescue (Sega System 32), Alien3 - The Gun (Sega System 32), Barunba (MSX2), Barunba (PC Engine), Blaster Master - Enemy Below (Nintendo Game Boy Color), Bosconian (MSX), Cueb Runner (Sharp X68000), Dragon Buster (Sharp X68000), Fist of the North Star (NES), Fist of the North Star - 10 Big Brawls for the King of Universe (Nintendo Game Boy), Fray (MSX2), Hokuto no Ken (Family Computer), Illusion City (MSX turbo R), Image Fight (Sharp X68000), John Madden Football II (PC), King & Balloon (MSX), Kyuukyoku Tiger (Sharp X68000), Mappy (NEC PC-8801), Pac-Land (Sharp X68000), Pac-Man (MSX), R-Type (Sharp X68000), The Return of Ishtar (Fujitsu FM77AV), The Return of Ishtar (NEC PC-8801), The Return of Ishtar (NEC PC-9801), SHM (MSX2), Tank Battalion (MSX), Terra Cresta (Sharp X68000), Thunder Dragon (Arcade), Total Carnage (IBM PC AT), Toy Story Racer (Nintendo Game Boy Color), Turok - Battle of the Bionosaurs (Nintendo Game Boy), Turok - Rage Wars (Nintendo Game Boy Color), Turok 2 - Seeds of Evil (Nintendo Game Boy Color), Turok 3 - Shadow of Oblivion (Nintendo Game Boy Color), XVM (MSX) [Tafoid]
Abenteuer im ABC Park (Germany, Rev. 3), The Batman - Rettung von Gotham City (Germany) [TeamEurope]
The Batman - Rescate en Gotham City (Spain), Bob der Baumeister - Bobs spannender Arbeitstag (Germany, Rev. 104), Bob y sus Amigos - Un Día De Trabajo (Spain), Campeonato de Futbol V.Smile (Spain), Disney/Pixar Cars - Acelera el Motor en Radiador Springs (Spain), Disney/Pixar À Procura de Nemo - Nemo À Descoberta do Oceano (Portugal), DreamWorks Shrek - El Cuento de la Dragona (Spain), Lil' Bratz Estrellas De La Moda - Amigos, Moda y Diversión (Spain), Noddy - Detective Por um Dia (Portugal), Scooby-Doo - Misterio En El Parque (Spain, translucent blue cartridge), Superman - El Hombre de Acero (Spain), Walt Disney La Cenicienta - Los sueños mágicos de Cenicienta (Spain) [TeamEurope, ClawGrip]
mac_flop: The Supercars - Test Drive II Car Disk [FakeShemp]
mac_hdflop: Lost in Time - Parts 1 & 2 [FakeShemp]
st_flop: Ferrari Formula One (Euro) [FakeShemp]
Cranium - Freizeit Park - Ein Jahrmarkt voller Spiel- und Lernspaß (Germany), Dolphis Wasser-abenteuer (Germany) [TeamEurope]
Cranium - Parque de Atracciones de Cranium (Spain), Dakota y su mascota (Spain), Disney/Pixar Toy Story 2 (Smartbook) (USA), Disney's Little Einsteins (Spain), Kung Fu Panda - Aventura en el Valle de la Paz (Spain), Nick Jr. Dora the Explorer - Dora's Got a Puppy (Smartbook) (USA), Spider-Man y Amigos - Misiones Secretas (Spain, Rev. 222), V.Smile Estudio De Arte (Spain), V.Smile PC (Spain), Walt Disney La Cenicienta - Los sueños mágicos de Cenicienta (Spain, Rev. 122) [TeamEurope, ClawGrip]
vsmilem_cart: Disney La Casa de Mickey Mouse (Spain), Disney Winnie the Pooh - En busca de la miel (Spain), Disney/Pixar Cars - Acelera el Motor en Radiador Springs (Spain), Disney/Pixar Toy Story 3 (Spain), Disney/Pixar UP (Spain), Disney/Pixar Wall-E (Spain), DreamWorks Monstruos contra Alienígenas (Spain), ¡¡Scooby-Doo!! - Misterio en el parque (Spain) [TeamEurope, avlixa, ClawGrip]
The offshore-based FX and CFDs broker ITRADER has three trading accounts. The accounts are called Silver, Gold, and Platinum. The brokers provide an Islamic account to Muslim traders that enable swap-free trade. In this ITRADER review, we will investigate this broker thoroughly and find out its offers and reality.
The offshore-based FX and CFDs broker ITRADER claim its inception in early 2012. The trading assets offered are 50 FX pairs, and CFDs on several commodities, indices, stocks. It offers traders a well-established MetaTrader trading terminal. The firm called Hoch Capital Limited manages the ITRADER trademark. The brokers claim its registration at the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission, Cyprus. The CySEC imposes many rules and regulations on the brokerage provider in its country. These are maintenance of 7,30,000 euros, and also advises brokers to segregate trading accounts. The broker also claims to offer Investor Compensation Fund to the traders. It helps traders to avoid loss and scam. Also; all the brokerage providers under CySEC are entitled to MiFID compliance. It enables brokers to perform cross border business in the EU. The initial investment needed to open an account with ITRADER is 250 USD. The initial deposits are according to the current market situation. However, many regulated brokers offer the same services at 5 USD. The trade at ITRADER is commission-free. The spreads provided according to the types of accounts. The spread on the Silver account is at 2.2 pips, Gold account at 1.3 pips, and Platinum account at 0.7 pips on significant FX pair of EUUSD. The spread of 0.7 is profitable, but it requires a higher initial deposition. The offered leverages are in between 1:200 to 1:500. The provided leverages are according to the current market value but can make colossal profit or loss. The broker offers to trade on versatile and easy to use a trading platform MetaTrader. It is available on all operating systems like iOS, Android, and Windows. MT is the top-rated trading platforms. ITRADER offers Virtual Private Server to its traders for extra security in FX and CFDs trade. Many payment gateways manage the payment funding and withdrawal of profits. They are cards, and bank transfers are few to mention. Unfortunately, Skrill and Neteller not provided.
Is ITRADER scam or legit?
ITRADER is a regulated and licensed FX broker by CySEC. The trading conditions offered are higher. The trading platform provided is MetaTrader and is a good sign. However, offshore nature is worrisome. ITRADER may be a potential forex scam broker.
Hi All, Over the past few months of trading options I have accumulated a good chunk of earnings in USD. Me being Canadian when I go to transfer those funds to my bank account am worried I am going to get hit with fees. Should I put the USD into a forex account and do a currency swap with it? Send it to my bank normally? Or use an exchange broker who trades forex (they have pretty good rates)? Appreciate all info! EDIT (additional info):
I use Questrade
I bank with Tangerine
Have used Knightsbridge FX to convert CAD/USD prior at a better rate
Calculating the forex swap rates on a short position of EUR/AUD: Here we are buying AUD and selling EUR. Since the interest rate of the currency we are selling (EUR: 2.0%) is lower than that of the currency we are buying (AUD: 2.75%), This is a positive carry, and we will now put the information in the formula: Swap rates are the interest rate differentials embedded in currency trades. To put it more simply, consider how a forex trade works: you borrow one currency to buy another. For instance, if you are buying EUR/USD, you are borrowing US dollars and buying euros with the proceeds. In doing so, you are ... Forex Swap Rates? The swap charges in forex or rollover interest rates is the net interest return that a trader accumulates on a currency position held overnight. This fee is charged when the trader borrows one currency to buy another, as part of forex trading. FOREX.com is a registered FCM and RFED with the CFTC and member of the National Futures Association (NFA # 0339826). Forex trading involves significant risk of loss and is not suitable for all investors. Full Disclosure. Spot Gold and Silver contracts are not subject to regulation under the U.S. Commodity Exchange Act. Forex Swap Rates Comparison. Powered by Myfxbook.com . How Does a Swap Work In Forex? Since it is the difference in interest you can either be paid that difference or charged it based on the currency pair you are trading. If you are trading on margin you make money on the interest for long positions and then pay the interest on the short trades.
How to View Swap Rates on MT4 - MetaTrader4 Tutorials
How to view swap rate and other information (trading times, contract size, base currency) on MetaTrader4. Trading Forum, Chart Analysis, Forex Courses, Forex Tools and More... www.technicalforex.com. Get more information about IG US by visiting their website: https://www.ig.com/us/future-of-forex Get my trading strategies here: https://www.robbooker.com C... Telegram: https://t.me/gktca Today I would like to explain what a swap fee is and how to deal with swap fees. A swap fee is a fee that a broker charges when you have a trade that is open... Use the FX Swap Rate Monitor tool to calculate implied interest rate differentials for currency pairs using pricing data from CME FX futures and FX Link.